Referencing

Student studying

APA 6th (Harvard) style is the main referencing style in use at the University. Law students, you should use the OSCOLA referencing style and History students, you should use Chicago

Learn how to correctly reference different sources by following the examples shown below. Contact your subject team if you need help citing something not on this list. 

APA 6th (Harvard) Style guides

Referencing examples

Our easy to follow list shows how to reference more than 40 commonly used information sources:

How to reference different information sources

Acts of Parliament

See the entry for Statute.

Blogs

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year, Day Month). Title of article. [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

Goodwin, B. (2018, 9 May). Northern transport: the need for joined up infrastructure [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://www.ice.org.uk/news-and-insight/the-infrastructure-blog/may-2018/northern-transport-infrastructure

Books - Printed

Format:

Author, A.B. (Year). Title. (Edition.). Place of publication: Publisher.

Example:

Wood, D., Chynoweth, P., Adshead, J., & Mason, J. (2010). Law and the built environment. London: Wiley-Blackwell.

 

Books - Chapters in books

Format:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor (Eds.), Title of book. (pp.xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.

Examples:

Hope, W. (2010). Visions of Italy: the sublime, the postmodern, and the apocalyptic. In G. Harper & J. Rayner (Eds.), Cinema and landscape (pp. 103-116). Bristol: Intellect.

Kochberg, S. (2012). The industrial contexts of film production. In J. Nelmes (Ed.) Introduction to Film Studies (5th ed., pp. 2-40). Abingdon: Routledge.

Cases

Format:

Party v Party [Year of reporting] Where Reported Abbreviation case number

Example:

Derwent Holdings Ltd v Trafford Borough Council, Tesco Stores Limited, Lancashire County Cricket Club [2011] EWCA Civ 832

Conference proceedings

Conference proceedings are published in a book or journal and should therefore be treated as book chapter or journal article.

Conference papers (with DOI)

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of conference paper. Paper presented at Name of Conference. doi: 10. ...

Example:

Barresi, S., Meziane, F., Rezgui, Y., & Lima, C. (2005). Architecture to support semantic resources interoperability. Paper presented at the First ACM International Workshop on Interoperability of Heterogeneous Information Systems (IHIS 2005), Bremen, Germany. doi: 10.1145/1096967.1096984

Conference papers (no DOI)

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of conference paper. Paper presented at Name of Conference. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

James, P. (2008). Urban green spaces in the mid 21st century scenarios and trajectories for the future cityscapes - case study of a North European city. Paper presented at the International Conference: Urban Green Spaces: A Key for Sustainable Cities. Retrieved from http://usir.salford.ac.uk/9607

Dictionary entry (online)

Format:

Title of Entry. (Year). Title of Dictionary. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

Triskaidekaphobia. (2015). Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/triskaidekaphobia

E-books

Format:

Author. (Year). Title. (Edition.). Retrieved from http://www.somewebsite.co.uk

Examples:

Schiraldi, G. R. (2000). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: a guide to healing, recovery, and growth. doi:10.1036/0071393722

Geraghty, C. (2000). British cinema in the fifties: gender, genre, and the 'new look'. Retrieved from http://www.netlibrary.com

Roaf, S., Crichton, D., & Nicol, F. (2009). Adapting buildings and cities for climate change: a 21st century survival guide (2nd ed.). Retrieved from http://www.dawsonera.com

E-books - Chapters in e-books

Format:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor (Eds.), Title of book. (pp.xxx-xxx). Retrieved from http://www.somewebsite.co.uk

Examples:

Chippindale, C. (2010). Ambition, deference, discrepancy, consumption: the intellectual background to a post–processual archaeology. In N. Yoffee & A. Sherratt (Eds.), Archaeological theory. (pp. 27-36). doi:10.1017/CBO9780511720277

Gorman, M. J. (2004). The angel and the compass: Athanasius Kircher’s magnetic geography. In P. Findlen (Ed.), Athanasius Kircher: the last man who knew everything (pp. 239-259). Retrieved from http://www.dawsonera.com/

E-readers

Format:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor (Eds.), Title of book [Description of e-reader] (Chapter x). Retrieved from http://www.somewebsite.co.uk

Example:

Dale, C., & Robinson, N. (2007). Strategic imperatives for tourism SMEs in Europe. In R. Thomas & M. Augustyn (Eds.), Tourism in the new Europe: perspectives on SME policies and practices [Kindle DX version] (Chapter 4). Retrieved from http://www.amazon.co.uk

Ephemera

Format:

Company/organisation. (Year). Title [Description]. Viewed date for transitory material. Place: Producer if applicable.

Example - Billboard:

The Cooperative (2011). Our revolution [Billboard]. Viewed 21 March 2011, Chapel Street, Salford.

Example - Leaflet:

Salford Museum and Art Gallery (n.d.) Souvenir price list [Leaflet]. Salford: The Museum.

Example - Packaging:

Eurax Cream [Packaging]. (n.d.)

Example - Exhibition:

Peoples’ History Museum. (2019). Represent! Voices 100 years on, June 2018 – February 2019. [Exhibition]. Manchester

Films and DVDs

Format:

Director, A.B. (Director). (Year). Title [Format]. Place: Publisher.

Example:

Lewis, M. (Director) (1988). Cane toads: an unnatural history [Film]. Sydney: Film Australia.

Journal articles (Print)

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of the article. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), page numbers.

Example:

Cameron, M. (2006). Nesting habitat of the glossy black-cockatoo in central New South Wales. Biological Conservation, 127(4), 402-410.

Journal articles (electronic - DOI)

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of the article. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), page numbers. doi: 10. ...

Example:

Cox, T. (2008). Scraping sounds and disgusting noises. Applied Acoustics, 69(12), 1195-1204. doi: 10.1016/j.apacoust.2007.11.004

Journal articles (electronic - no DOI)

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of article. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), page numbers.

Example:

Rosenzweig, M. L., & Winakur, J. (1969). Population ecology of desert rodent communities: habitats and environmental complexity. Ecology, 50(4), 558-572.

LinkedIn Learning Video

Format:

Instructor, A. B. (Year, Day Month). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from https://...

Example:

Patel, Y. (2017, 2 October). SPSS for Academic Research [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.linkedin.com/learning/spss-for-academic-research/

Live Performances

Do not write references for live theatre, dance or music performances, as these cannot be retrieved. Instead give any relevant details in the text of your essay or assignment.

There is one exception to this rule. At Salford, we ask that Performance students, in the School of Arts & Media, do reference live performances. See this guide for further information.

Market Research

Format:

Organisation. (Year). Title. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

Mintel. (2014). Visitor Attractions: UK: December 2014. Retrieved from http://academic.mintel.com

Music scores

Format:

Composer, A.B. (Year). Title [Score]. Place: Publisher.

Example:

Barrios, A. (1957). Preludio (op. 5, no. 1) para guitarra [Score]. Bueno Aires: Ricordi Americana.

Newspaper articles (print)

Format:

Journalist, A. B. (Year, Day Month). Title of article. Newspaper Title. p. page number.

Example:

Glenny, M. (2011, 16 May). Cyber-weaponry, virtual battlefields and the changing face of global warfare. The Guardian, p. 22.

Newspaper articles (electronic)

Format:

Journalist, A. B. (Year, Day Month). Title of article. Newspaper Title. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

Mann, C. (2013, 9 June). Playing with frozen fire: the new fuel tempting the world. The Sunday Times. Retrieved from http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/

Newspaper articles (no author)

Format:

Title of article. (Year, Day Month). Newspaper Title. p. page number. (or Retrieved from http://...)

Example:

Extreme makeover: are humans reshaping Earth? (2011, 17 May). The Independent. Retrieved from http://www.independent.co.uk/

Online multimedia

Format:

Producer, A. B. (Producer). (Year). Title [Format]. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

Becker, A. (Producer). (2006) Animator vs. animation [Multimedia]. Retrieved from http://fc01.deviantart.com/fs13/f/2007/077/2/e/Animator_vs__Animation_by_alanbecker.swf

Patents (print)

Format:

Inventor, A. B. (Year). Title of patent. Patent Office No. Patent number.

Example:

Thompson, A. (2009). System for joining double glazing sections of a sloping roof comprising fastening means for linking the adjacent glazing sections together. UK Patent No. GB 2459431(A).

Patents (electronic)

Format:

Inventor, A. B. (Year). Title of patent. Patent Office No. Patent number. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

Rossini, D. (2010). Blackout or shading curtain panel, arrangeable within a double glazing unit. World Intellectual Property Organization No. WO2010143145(A1). Retrieved from http://www.espacenet.com

Plays

If you are discussing a live performance (either commenting on the acting, staging or anything else) see the guidance for Live Performances.

If you have seen the play performed by watching a video, TV programme or film, or listening to a radio broadcast, reference it using the relevant guidance for these formats.

If you have used a published play script, reference it using the format for a printed book. If the script was published electronically, reference it as an e-book, website, or webpage, as appropriate.

Podcasts

Format:

Producer (Producer). (Year, date of original broadcast). Title [Format]. Series - if applicable. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

BBC World Service (Producer). (2011, 4 February). New mosquito [Podcast]. Science in Action. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/series/scia

Radio Programme

Format:

Creator, A. B. (Role). ( Year). Title [Radio Programme]. Place: Publisher.

Examples:

Barm, G. (Producer). (2014). Goths, Moths & Mancs [Radio programme]. Manchester: FCUMRadio.

Reports and government publications (UK only: print)

Format:

Department. (Year). Title. Place: Publisher.

Example:

House of Commons. (2006). Eliminating world poverty: making governance work for the poor: a White Paper on international development. London: Stationery Office.

Reports and government publications (UK only: electronic)

Format:

Department. (Year). Title. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

Department of Health. (2012). Caring for our future: reforming care and support. Retrieved from http://www.dh.gov.uk/health/files/2012/07/White-Paper-Caring-for-our-future-reforming-care-and-support-PDF-1580K.pdf

Reports and government publications (multiple countries: print)

Format:

Country. Department. (Year). Title. Place: Publisher.

Example:

Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons. (2006). Eliminating world poverty: making governance work for the poor: a White Paper on international development. London: Stationery Office.

Reports and government publications (multiple countries: electronic)

Format:

Country. Department. (Year). Title. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

Australia. Department of Health and Ageing. (2012). Evaluation of the consumer-directed care initiative: final report. Retrieved from http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/659479336D383B53CA25784F00114B0E/$File/CDC-Eval-Final-Rep.pdf

Sound recordings

Format:

Performer, A.B. (Year). Title [Format]. Place: Publisher.

Example:

Bartok, B. l., Reiner, F., & Chicago Symphony Orchestra. (2004). Concerto for orchestra: music for strings, percussion and celesta; Hungarian sketches [CD]. New York, NY: BMG Classics.

Standards (print)

Format:

Organisation. (Year). Title of standard. (Standard number). Place: Publisher

Example:

British Standards Institution. (2005). Acoustics: guidelines for noise control in offices and workrooms by means of acoustical screens (BS EN ISO; 17624:2004). London: BSI.

Standards (electronic)

Format:

Organisation. (Year). Title of standard. (Standard number). Retrieved from http://...

Example:

British Standards Institution. (2005). Football goals: code of practice for their procurement, installation, maintenance, storage and inspection. (BS 8461:2005+A1:2009). Retrieved from https://bsol.bsigroup.com/en/

Statutes (Acts of Parliament)

Format:

Title and Year of Act chapter or section number if applicable.

Examples:

Climate Change Act 2008

Football (Disorder) Act 2000 c. 25

Statutory Instruments

Format:

Title and Year of Act SI number.

Example:

Construction Contracts (England) Exclusion Order 2011 SI 2011/2332

Theses (print)

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of thesis. (Unpublished award thesis). Name of University, Place.

Example:

Sarwono, S. J. (2005). The influence of surface diffusion on the acoustics of Javanese gamelan performance hall. (Unpublished PhD thesis), University of Salford, Salford.

Theses (electronic)

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of thesis. (Unpublished award thesis). Name of University, Place. Retrieved from http:// ...

Example:

Mogotlhwane, T. (2008). Barriers to successful application of information technology in Botswana. (PhD thesis), University of Salford, Salford. Retrieved from http://usir.salford.ac.uk/1735/

Translated works (published translation)

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title. (A. Translator, Trans.). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example:

Galeano, E. H. (1997). Football in sun and shadow (M. Fried, Trans.). London: Fourth Estate.

Translated works (your own translation: book)

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Original title. [Translated English title]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example:

Rossfeld, R. (2007). Schweizer Schokolade : industrielle Produktion und kulturelle Konstruktion eines nationalen Symbols 1860 - 1920 [Swiss chocolate manufacturing and cultural construction of a national symbol 1860 - 1920]. Baden, CH: Hier Und Jetzt Verlag.

Translated works (your own translation: journal article)

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Original title of article. [Translated English title]. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), page numbers.

Example:

del Río, J. (2011). Algumas memórias do cinema cubano mais polêmico [Some memories of the most controversial Cuban cinema]. Estudos Avancados, 25(72), 145-159.

TV - Programme

Format:

Creator, A. B. (Role). (Year). Title [Television programme]. Place: Publisher.

Examples:

Twaddle, A. (Producer & Director). (2014). The Machine Gun and Skye's Band of Brothers [Television programme]. Salford: BBC.

TV - Episode from a TV Series

Format:

Creator, A. B. (Role). (Year). Title. Episode Title [Television series episode]. In A. B. Series Creator (Role). Series Title. Place: Publisher.

Examples:

Liddell, R. (Producer & Director). (2009). How Long Is a Piece of String? [Television series episode]. In A. Cohen (Editor), Horizon. London: BBC.

Twitter

Format:

Author, A. B. [screen name]. (Year, Day, Month). Tweet in full [Tweet]. Retrieved from http://...

Examples:

Fry, S. [stephenfry]. (2014, 2nd July). Inspirational science and maths lessons should be at the heart of education. Yes @royalsociety! #V4Education http://ow.ly/yALL0 [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/stephenfry/status/484260200182861827

Video Game

Format:

Creator, A. B. (Role). (Year). Title [Video game]. Place: Publisher.

Examples:

Parker, T. & Stone, M. (Writers). (2014) South Park: The Stick of Truth [Video game]. Montreuil: Ubisoft.

Webpages

Most webpages are written by an organisation rather than an individual.

Format:

Organisation. (Year). Title of webpage. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

Thatcham Research. (2017). Autonomous Driving. Retrieved from https://www.thatcham.org/car-safety/driver-assistance/autonomous-driving/

Websites

Format:

Organisation. (Year). Title of Whole Website. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

Diabetes UK. (2018). UK Diabetes Resource. Retrieved from http://www.diabetes.co.uk/

Wiki entries

Most wikis do not list authors, so start your reference with the title.

Format:

Title of entry. (Year). Title of Wiki. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

Tiger quoll. (2018). Wikipedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spotted-tailed_Quoll

YouTube Video

Format:

Creator, A. B. (Year, Day Month). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from https://...

Example:

Currie, N. (2012, 20 November). The Golden Ratio : An Engineer's Perspective [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T4zcZ0yyYdg