OSCOLA referencing for Law students

Scales of Justice Law image

OSCOLA is the referencing style used on law programmes at the University of Salford. It stands for Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities.

When you use information that is not your own words or ideas you need to reference it using the OSCOLA style.

Law students - Learn how to correctly reference different resources using the OSCOLA style by reading our guide and following the examples shown below.

Contact Sue Barker-Mathews library-SBS@salford.ac.uk if you need help citing something not on this list.

Style guides

OSCOLA Referencing Handbook - This is our official OSCOLA guide.

Online Learning
Thumbnail image for OSCOLA eLearning

Learn the basics of referencing using the OSCOLA Style.

Format: eLearning | Duration: 20 minutes

 

Referencing examples

Our easy to follow list shows how to reference more than 40 commonly used information sources:

How to reference different information sources

Act of Parliament

Footnote Format:

Short title Year of Act, section(subsection)(paragraph)

Footnote Example:

Human Rights Act 1998 s15(1)(b)

Bibliography Format:

Short title Year of Act

Bibliography Example:

Human Rights Act 1998

Bill - House of Commons

Footnote Format:

Title HC Bill (session) [number] clause(subpart)

Footnote Example:

Consolidated Fund HC Bill (2008-9) [5] cl 8(2)

Bibliography Format:

Title HC Bill (session) [Number]

Bibliography Example:

Consolidated Fund HC Bill (2008-9) [5]

 

Bill - House of Lords

Footnote Format:

Title HL Bill (session) Number Clause (subpart)

Footnote Example:

Academies HL Bill (2010-11) 1 cl 5 (3)

Bibliography Format:

Title HL Bill (session) Number

Bibliography Example:

Academies HL Bill (2010-11) 1

Blog

Footnote Format:

Author, 'Title of blog post' (Blog title, Date of post) Website Address accessed Date of access

Footnote Example:

Richard Percival, 'Does the UK Supreme Court have enough power?' (UK Supreme Court, 2 December 2016) http://ukscblog.com/article-50-does-the-uk-supreme-court-have-enough-power accessed 24 January 2017

Bibliography Format:

Author surname Initial, 'Title of blog post' (Blog title, Date of post) Website Address accessed Date of access

Bibliography Example:

Percival R, 'Does the UK Supreme Court have enough power?' (UK Supreme Court, 2 December 2016) http://ukscblog.com/article-50-does-the-uk-supreme-court-have-enough-power accessed 24 January 2017

Book or eBook

Footnote Format:

Author, Title of book (Edition publisher year) Page number referencing

Footnote Example:

Timothy Endicott, Administrative Law (1st edn Oxford University Press 2009) 42

Bibliography Format:

Author surname Initial, Book title (Edition Publisher Year of Publication)

Bibliography Example:

Endicott T, Administrative Law (1st edn Oxford University Press 2009)

Book or eBook - chapter in an edited book

Footnote Format:

Author of chapter, 'Title of chapter' in Editor name(s) (eds), Title of book (Publisher Year of Publication) Page number referencing

Footnote Example:

Francis Rose, 'The Evaluation of the Species' in Andrew Burrows and Alan Rodge (eds), Mapping the Law: Essays in Memory of Peter Birks (Oxford University Press 2006) 102

Bibliography Format:

Surname of author of chapter Initial, 'Title of chapter' in Editor name(s) (eds), Title of book (Publisher Year of Publication)

Bibliography Example:

Rose F, 'The Evaluation of the Species' in Andrew Burrows and Alan Rodge (eds), Mapping the Law: Essays in Memory of Peter Birks (Oxford University Press 2006)

Book or eBook - secondary citation

It is best academic practice to consult the original information source. If it is not possible to find the original source, cite the source as cited in the secondary source then in brackets put ‘as cited in’ then cite the secondary source including the page number. For example:

Footnote Format:

Author, Title (Publisher Year of Publication) Page number (as cited in Author, Title (Publisher Year of publication) Page number referencing)

Footnote Example:

WL Clay, The Prison Chaplain: A Memoir of the Reverend John Clay (London 1861) 554 (as cited in M Wiener, Reconstructing the Criminal Culture, Law and Policy in England 1830–1914 (Cambridge University Press 1990) 79)

Bibliography Format:

Author, Title (Publisher Year of Publication) (as cited in Author, Title (Publisher Year of publication))

Bibliography Example:

Clay, WL. The Prison Chaplain: A Memoir of the Reverend John Clay (London 1861) (as cited in M Wiener, Reconstructing the Criminal Culture, Law and Policy in England 1830–1914 (Cambridge University Press 1990))

Case - law report with neutral citation (all reported UK cases post 2001)

Footnote Format:

Case name [Year of neutral citation] Court Case number, [Year law report published] OR (Year case heard) Volume (if applicable) Law report series abbreviation First page of case, page number referencing [or paragraph number referencing]

Footnote Example:

Corr v IBC Vehicles Ltd [2008] UKHL 13, [2008] 1 AC 884, 882

Bibliography Format:

Case name [Year of neutral citation] Court Case number, [Year law report published] OR (year case heard) Volume (if applicable) Law report series abbreviation First page of case

Bibliography Example:

Corr v IBC Vehicles Ltd [2008] UKHL 13, [2008] 1 AC 884

Case - law report with no neutral citation (all reported UK cases pre 2001)

Footnote Format:

Case name [Year] or (Year) Volume if applicable Law report series abbreviation First page of case, Page number referencing [or paragraph number referencing]

Footnote Example:

Page v Smith [1996] AC 155, 157

Bibliography Format:

Case name [Year] or (Year) Volume if applicable Law report Sereis abbreviation First page of case

Bibliography Example:

Page v Smith [1996] AC 155

Case - with neutral citation only

Footnote Format:

Case name [Year] Court Case number [paragraph referencing]

Footnote Example:

FirstGroup Plc v Paulley [2017] UKSC 4 [7]

Bibliography Format:

Case name [Year] Court Case number

Bibliography Example:

FirstGroup Plc v Paulley [2017] UKSC 4

Case - from non-UK jurisdictions

Footnote Format:

Cite primary sources (cases and legislation) as in their home jurisdiction, with the exception that full stops in abbreviations should be removed

Bibliography Format:

Cite primary sources (cases and legislation) as in their home jurisdiction, with the exception that full stops in abbreviations should be removed

Civil Procedure Rule - Practice Direction

Footnote Format:

Practice Direction Number PD Part referencing

Footnote Example:

2C PD 6.1

Bibliography Format:

Practice Direction Number PD

Bibliography Example:

2C PD

Command Paper

Footnote Format:

Government department, Title of Command Paper (Cm Number of paper, Year of paper) Page number referencing

Footnote Example:

Department of Health, Choosing health. Making healthy choices easier (Cm 6374, 2004) 92

Bibliography Format:

Government department, Title of Command Paper (Cm Number of paper, Year of paper)

Bibliography Example:

Department of Health, Choosing health. Making healthy choices easier (Cm 6374, 2004)

Conference Paper

Footnote Format:

Author(s), 'Title of conference paper' (Title of Conference, Place of Conference, Date of Conference)

Footnote Example:

Ben McFarlane and Donal Nolan, 'Remedying Reliance: The Future Development of Promissory and Proprietary Estoppel in English Law' (Obligations III confernece, Brisbane, July 2006)

Bibliography Format:

Surname of author(s) Intial, 'Title of conference paper' (Title of Conference, Place of Conference, Date of Conference)

Bibliography Example:

McFarlane B and Nolan D, 'Remedying Reliance: The Future Development of Promissory and Proprietary Estoppel in English Law' (Obligations III confernece, Brisbane, July 2006)

Dictionary - online

Footnote Format:

'Word searched', Online dictonary title Web address accessed Date accessed

Footnote Example:

'Contract', OED Online http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/40330 accessed 24 January 2017

Bibliography Format:

Online dictionary name Web address accessed Date accessed

Bibliography Example:

OED Online http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/40330 accessed 24 January 2017

Dictionary - print (including Westlaw)

Footnote Format:

'Word looked up', Title of dictionary (Dictionary edition Publisher Year of Publication)

Footnote Example:

'Jury', Stroud's Judicial Dictionary (8th edn Sweet & Maxwell 2014)

Bibliography Format:

Dictionary name (Edition Publisher Year of publication)

Bibliography Example:

Stroud's Judicial Dictionary 8th edn Sweet & Maxwell 2014)

EU Case

Footnote Format:

Case number Case name [Year] Report abbreviation First page, Page number referencing

Footnote Example:

Case 240/83 Procureur de la Republique v ADBHU [1985] ECR 531, 545

Bibliography Format:

Case number Case name [Year] Report abbreviation First page

Bibliography Example:

Case 240/83 Procureur de la Republique v ADBHU [1985] ECR 531

EU Council Directive

Footnote Format:

Council Directive Number Title [Year] OJ L Issue/First page, Article referencing

Footnote Example:

Council Directive 2002/60/EC of 27 June 2002 laying down specific provisions for the control of African swine fever and amending Directive 92/ 119/EEC as regards Teschen disease and African swine fever [2002] OJ L192/27, Art 3

Bibliography Format:

Council Directive Number Title [Year] OJ L Issue/First page

Bibliography Example:

Council Directive 2002/60/EC of 27 June 2002 laying down specific provisions for the control of Afircan swine fever and amending Directive 92/119/EEC as regards Teschen disease and African swine feber [2002] OJ L192/27

EU Council Regulation

Footnote Format:

Council Regulation Number Title [Year] OJ L Issue/First page, Article number referencing

Footnote Example:

Council Regulation 1984/2003 of 8 April 2003 introducing a system for the statistical monitoring of trade in bluefin tuna, swordfish and bigeye tuna within the Community [2003] OJ L295/1, Art 7

Bibliography Format:

Council Regulation Number Title [Year] OJ L Issue/First page

Bibliography Example:

Council Regulation 1984/2003 of 8 April 2003 introducting a system for the statistical monitoring of trade in bluefin tuna, swordfish and bigeye tuna within the Community [2003] OJ L295/1

EU Treaty

Footnote Format:

Legislation title [Year] OJ series Issue/First page, Article number referencing [paragraph number referencing]

Footnote Example:

Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union [2008] OJ C115/13, art 4 [2]

Bibliography Format:

Legislation title [Year] OJ series Issue/first page

Bibliography Example:

Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union [2008] OJ C115/13

European Commission Document

Footnote Format:

Commission, 'Title' Com (Year) Number, Page number referencing

Footnote Example:

Commission, 'The Introduction of Third Generation Mobile Communications in the European Union: State of Play and the Way Forward' Com (2001) 141 Final, 11

Bibliography Format:

Commission, 'Title' Com (Year) Number

Bibliography Example:

Commission, 'The Introduction of Third Generation Mobile Communications in the European Union: State of Play and the Way Forward' Com (2001) 141 Final

European Court of Human Rights Judgement

Footnote Format:

Case name (Year) Volume European Human Rights Reports abbreviation First page of case, Page number referencing

Footnote Example:

Omojudi v UK (2010) 51 EHRR 10,15

Bibliography Format:

Case name (Year) Volume European Human Rights Reports abbreviation First page of case

Bibliography Example:

Omojudi v UK (2010) 51 EHRR 10

Government Report

Footnote Format:

Name of Committee, Title of the report (House Session, Paper number) Paragaraph referencing

Footnote Example:

Health Committee, Winter pressure in accident and emergency departments: third report (HC 2016-17, 277) para 109

Bibliography Format:

Name of Committee, Title of the report (House Session, Paper number)

Bibliography Example:

Health Committee, Winter pressure in accident and emergency departments: third report (HC 2016/17, 277)

Hansard and Parliamentary Debate

Footnote Format:

HL Deb or HC Deb date, Volume, Column

Footnote Example:

HC Deb 3 February 1977, vol 389, cols 973-76

Bibliography Format:

HL Deb or HC Deb date, Volume, Column

Bibliography Example:

HC Deb 3 February 1977, vol 389, cols 973-76

Hansard and Parliamentary Debate - written answer

Footnote Format:

HC Deb date, Volume, Column number W

HL Deb Date, Volume, Column WA number

Footnote Example:

HC Deb 4 July 1996, vol 280, col 505W

HL Deb 21 Ki;u 2005, vol 673, col WA261

Bibliography Format:

HC Deb date, Volume, Column number W

HL Deb Date, Volume, Column WA number

Bibliography Example:

HC Deb 4 July 1996, vol 280, col 505W

HL Deb 21 Ki;u 2005, vol 673, col WA261

Journal Article - found online via a general web search

Footnote Format:

Author, 'Title of article' [Year] OR (Year) Volume number (Issue number if applicable) Journal name or abbreviation Web address accessed Date accessed

Footnote Example:

Graham Greenleaf, 'The Global Development of Free Access to Legal Information' (2010) 1(1) EJLT http://ejlt.org/article/view/17 accessed 27 July 2010

Bibliography Format:

Author, surname Initial, 'Title of article' [Year] OR (Year) Volume number (Issue number if applicable) Journal name or abbreviation Web address accessed Date accessed

Bibliography Example:

Greenleaf G, 'The Global Development of Free Access to Legal Information'(2010) 1(1) EJLT http://ejlt.org/article/view/17 accessed 27 July 2010

Journal Articles - print or accessed online via Library Search

Footnote Format:

Author, 'Title of article' (Year of publication) Volume number (Issue number if applicable) Journal name or abbreviation First page of article, Page number referencing

Footnote Example:

Alison Young, 'In Defense of Due Deference' (2009) 72 MLR 554, 556

Bibliography Format:

Author surname Initial, 'Title of article' (Year of publication) Volume number (Issue number if applicable) Journal name or abbreviation First page of article

Bibliography Example:

Young A, 'In Defense of Due Deference' (2009) 72 MLR 554

Law Commission Report

Footnote Format:

Law Commission, Title of report (Law Com Number of report, Year of report) Paragraph(s) number(s) referencing

Footnote Example:

Law Commission, Reforming Bribery (Law Com No 313, 2008) paras 3.12-3.17

Bibliography Format:

Law Commission, Title of report (Law Com Number of report, Year of report)

Bibliography Example:

Law Commission, Reforming Bribery (Law Com No 313, 2008)

Lecture Notes

As good academic practice it is recommended that you do not reference your lecture slides in assignments. The best academic practice is to locate the information required in a textbook or journal article and reference this appropriately.

Legislation - from non-UK jurisdiction

Footnote Format:

Cite primary sources (cases and legislation) as in their home jurisdiction, with the exception that full stops in abbreviations should be removed.

Bibliography Format:

Cite primary sources (cases and legislation) as in their home jurisdiction, with the exception that full stops in abbreviations should be removed.

Newspaper Article - online

Footnote Format:

Author of article, 'Title of article' Newspaper title (Place of publication, Date of publication) Web address of article accessed Date accessed

Footnote Example:

Owen Bowcott, 'Disability groups hail court's support for wheelchair user on bus' The Guardian (London, 18 January 2017) https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/jan/18/court-backs-wheelchair-user-who-was-stopped-from-boarding-bus-yorkshire-leeds accessed 25 January 2017

Bibliography Format:

Author surname Initial, 'Title of article' Newspaper title (Place of publication, Date of publication) Web address of article accessed Date accessed

Bibliography Example:

Bowcott O, 'Disability groups hail court's support for wheelchair user on bus' The Guardian (London, 18 January 2017) https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/jan/18/court-backs-wheelchair-user-who-was-stopped-from-boarding-bus-yorkshire-leeds accessed 25 January 2017

Newspaper Article - print and accessed online via Library Search

Footnote Format:

Author of article, 'Title of article' Newspaper title (Place of publication, Date of publication) Page number of article

Footnote Example:

Jane Croft, 'Supreme Court Warns on Quality' Financial Times (London ,1 July 2010) 3

Bibliography Format:

Author surname Initial, 'Title of article' Newspaper title (Place of publication, Date of publication)

Bibliography Example:

Croft J, 'Supreme Court Warns on Quality' Financial Times (London, 1 July 2010) 3

EU case - opinion of the Advocat General

Footnote Format:

EU case citation, Opinion of AG Name, paragraph number referencing

Footnote Example:

Case 240/83 Procureur de la Republique v ADBHU [1985] ECR 531, Opinion of AG Lenz , para 2.4

Bibliography Format:

EU case citation, Opinion of AG Name

Bibliography Example:

Case 240/83 Procureur de la Republique v ADBHU [1985] ECR 531, Opinion of AG Lenz

Statute

Footnote Format:

Short title Year of Act, section(subsection if applicable)(paragraph if applicable)

Footnote Example:

Human Rights Act 1998 s15(1)(b)

Bibliography Format:

Short title Year of Act

Bibliography Example:

Human Rights Act 1998

Statutory Instrument

Footnote Format:

Title Year, SI number Section(subsection if applicable)(paragraph if applicable)

Footnote Example:

The Consumer Rights (Enforcement and Amendments) Order 2016, SI 2016/1259 s1

Bibliography Format:

Title Year, SI number

Bibliography Example:

The Consumer Rights (Enforcement and Amendments) Order 2016, SI 2016/1259

Theses

Footnote Format:

Author, Title (Type of thesis, University Year of completion) Page number referencing

Footnote Example:

Javan Herberg, 'Injunctive Relief for Wrongful Termination of Employmnet' (DPhil thesis, University of Oxford 1989) 27

Bibliography Format:

Author surname Initial, Title (Type of thesis, University Year of completion)

Bibliography Example:

Herberg J, 'Injunctive Relief for Wrongful Termination of Employmnet' (DPhil thesis, University of Oxford 1989)

UN Convention

Footnote Format:

Title of convention (adopted date, entered into force date (if available)) Volume number of United Treaty Series it is published in UNTS page number convention starts on, article referencing

Footnote Example:

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (adopted 23 May 1969, entered into force 27 January 1980) 1115 UNTS 331, art 7

Bibliography Format:

Title of convention (adopted date, entered into force date (if available)) Volume number of United Treaty Series it is published in UNTS page number convention starts on

Bibliography Example:

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (adopted 23 May 1969, entered into force 27 January 1980) 1115 UNTS 331

UN Declaration

Footnote and Bibliography Format:

Name of Declaration (adopted date) Resolution number (abbreviation) article referencing

Footnote and Bibliography Example:

Universal Declaration on Human Rights (adopted 10 December 1948) 217 A(III) (UNGA), art 7

Bibliography Format:

Name of Declaration (adopted date) Resolution number (abbreviation)

Bibliography Example:

Universal Declaration on Human Rights (adopted 10 December 1948) 217 A(III) (UNGA)

UN General Assembly Resolution

Footnote Format:

UNGA Resolution number (publication date) part or article referencing

Footnote Example:

UNGA Res 3314(XXIX) (14 December 1974) art 3

Bibliography Format:

UNGA Resolution number (publication date)

Bibliography Example:

UNGA Res 3314(XXIX) (14 December 1974)

Website

Footnote Format:

Author, 'Title of webpage' web address accessed Date accessed

Footnote Example:

Clive Coleman, 'What is the article 50 case all about?' http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-38183127 accessed 24 January 2017

Bibliography Format:

Author surname Initial, 'Title of webpage' Web address accessed Date accessed

Bibliography Example:

Coleman C, 'What is the article 50 case all about?' http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-38183127 accessed 24 January 2017

Westlaw Insight

Footnote Format:

Author, 'Title of section' Insight (updated date) accessed date

Footnote Example:

Michelle Heeley, 'Double Jeopardy' Insight (5 December 2013) accessed 23 July 2014

Bibliography Format:

Author surname Initial, 'Title of section' Insight (updated date) accessed date

Bibliography Example:

Heeley M, 'Double Jeopardy' Insight (5 December 2013) accessed 23 July 2014